Candida Glabrata Lung

How yeasts survive stress in the human body

My research focuses on the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata which causes often fatal systemic blood stream infections in humans. In particular, I'm investigating how Candida glabrata survives stresses in the human environment. For an example, when our blood cells encounter invading microorganisms in our blood certain immune cells will engulf the invading microorganisms and release toxic chemicals to kill them. However, Candida glabrata is able to survive this and will replicate inside blood cells and go on to cause disease. To further understand how Candida glabrata

survives stresses encountered in the human environment I have designed a number of mutants which we have examined. We found that some mutants were able to survive stresses better than others and when we examine the DNA of the stress resistant mutants, we were then able to identify genes that are important for infection. Once we've identified genes which are important for causing disease we can then go on to research these further and use them as potential targets for developing novel therapeutics to treat fungal disease.

Ventilatorassociated Events Training

gt;gt; Have done or are doing VAE now. Great, great. How many of you like it as compared to the Inaudible Conversations Okay. All right. I'm not sure how to take that. I saw a lot of up and down hands there. All right.

Well the objectives today are to reviewventilator associated events, the definitions and the surveillance methods, describe importantchanges made to VAE surveillance in 2014, review the use of the VAE calculator anddescribe how to correctly enter VAE into NHN, and HSN, and then accurately apply theVAE algorithm to some example cases. So we will do have some case studies. I have the fortunate place of being the lastpresenter so I expect that you'll all look like this at the end laughter; veryhappy to leave, but I'm going to take it that you're really happy with my presentation.

All right. So let's get started. To begin with, let's just I just would liketo give you a little background and the rational for the change in the definitions. So why the switch from thetraditional pneumonia VAP to VAE? Well, we all know that ventilatorassociated pneumonia is or VAP is an important complicationof mechanical ventilation. But of course, it's also true thatother types of adverse events occur

in critically ill patients whorequire mechanical ventilation. Currently, there's no valid reliabledefinition for VAP so there's no gold standard, whether we're talking about definitionsused in public health and surveillance, al research or even bedsidediagnosis and al care of patients. More accurate diagnostics are needed, butuntil then and when those are available, we still have a need to conductsurveillance for complications in mechanically ventilated patientsand track prevention progress. The traditional new VAP that weare have used over the years,

those definitions includemany subjective elements and they're neither particularlysensitive or specific for VAP. This is particularly challengingin a era in which public reporting of health care associated conditionrates is becoming more common, which you're all very familiar with, and in which comparisons amongfacilities are being made and pay for performance programsare incorporated incorporating some of these conditions.

So we needed a new approach. And the goals of changing the approach to VAPsurveillance were to improve the reliability of the definitions, reduce burden ofsurveillance and enhance the ability to use surveillance data to driveimprovements in patient care and safety. With these issues in mind, we set out tomodify the approach to VAP surveillance to achieve face validity or alcredibility and to improve the reliability of the definitions, and to reducethe burden of surveillance. A working group convened in 2011to revamp the VAP surveillance.

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