Gram Stain Test For Candida Albicans

Vaginitis Candida BV Trichomoniasis Wet Mount Whiff Test Vaginal pH Trich Albicans gardnerella

Distinguished future physicians welcome toStomp on Step 1 the only free tutorials series that helps you study more efficiently by focusingon the highest yield material. I'm Brian McDaniel and I will be your guide on thisjourney through vulvovaginal infections. This is the 3rd tutorial in my playlist covering allof microbio. Vulvovaginitis (AKA Vaginitis) is inflammationof the lower genital tract. It is usually due to infection, but there are a wide varietyof causes. During this tutorial we will focus on the 3 most important causes of vulvovaginitisfor the medical board exam (trichomonas, candida and BV). However, you should know that othertypes of vaginitis include mechanical irritation,

allergic reactions (to soaps or feminine products)and a variety of other infections. Atrophic Vaginitis is a common cause of vaginitis inpostmenopausal women and we will cover that in a later tutorial in the GYN section. Gonorrheaand Chlamydia present primarily with cervicitis, but it can also cause vulvovaginitis. GCwill be covered later in its own tutorial. We will start with a few different tests thatwe will use to differentiate between the different infections.Wet Prep (AKA Wet Mount Test) is a microscopic examination of vaginal discharge used to differentiatebetween different types of vulvovaginitis. The vaginal specimen is obtained using a speculumand a que tip similar to how one gets a pap

smear. Then the specimen is rubbed onto aglass slide. One half of the slide has a drop of saline added to it while the other halfof the slide has a drop of 1020% KOH (Potassium hydroxide) added to it.When Saline is added it makes it easier to view clue cells for BV flagellated motilecells for trichomonas. The KOH kills bacteria and vaginal cells leavingonly yeast cells. This makes it easier to view the psuedohyphae and budding yeast presentduring vulvovaginal candidiasis. KOH is also alkalotic so it can be used fora “Whiff Test.� In this scenario when the alkalotic KOH is added to a sample containingBV it will create an amine or fishy smell.

This is a similar principle behind how thesmell of BV can increase after unprotected sex since semen is alkalotic. The normal vaginal pH for a reproductive agewoman is about 4, while the normal vaginal pH before puberty and after menopause is about7. During puberty there is an estrogen guided increase in the growth lactobacilli flora.These bacteria break down glycogen into lactic acid which lowers pH from about 7 to about4. Now that you know the normal values you can apply it to diseases. Usually, BacterialVaginosis Trichomonas have alkalotic pH (gt;4.5 in reproductive age women) while candidahas normal pH (lt;4.5). pH paper can be tested

by using pH paper on vaginal discharge. You can see here at the top right corner thatI give BV a high yield rating of 3 on a scale from 1 to 10. If you want to learn more about that ratingsystem you can go to my website or click on this orange box here if you are watching thistutorial on a computer. Bacterial Vaginosis (AKA BV) is a polymicrobialinfection caused by the overgrowth of normal flora. The key bacteria in this infectionis gram negative Gardnerella Vaginalis. Clue cells are visible on the saline portionof a wet prep. A Clue Cell is a sloughed mucosal

squamous epithelial cell covered in many adherentcoccoid bacteria (Gardenerella Vaginalis). Here is a picture comparing normal squamousepithelial cells with a few scattered lactobacill to squamous cells that are covered in thousandsof adherent garenerella bacteria. Here is one more pic. You can see on the leftwe have a normal squamos epithelial cell with a few WBCs. On the right we have the darkerClue cells. Finally I have a photomicrograph to look atin case you see that on your test. A thinwatery graywhite discharge is presentA fouls smell is present and often described as an Amine Odor or Fishy Smell. This smellis intensified after unprotected intercourse

What Is The Difference Between Candida Albicans And Candida

Thank you for checking out my tutorial. Here'sa question I got from a guy in the States. What is the difference between Candida albicansand Candida? Probably no difference because most people when they talk about Candida oryeast infections, they talk about the organism, Candida Albicans. After doing many stool tests,I can tell you there's 19 types of Candida that commonly affect a human organism?.But when I say quot;commonlyquot; some I only see maybe 1 in every 400 to 500 stool tests. The common ones I see would be these: CandidaAlbicans, Candida Krusei, Candida Parapsilosis, Candida Glabrata, and Candida Tropicalis,so they'd probably be the five I would commonly

see. Occasionally, we get rare ones like CandidaLyxosophila or Candida Maltosa or Rugosa. These are more rare strains of Candida, sothey're picked up in the stool test every now and then. But the very common one I would see wouldbe Albicans in probably 89 percent of all stool tests, and I do see a bit of Glabrataand Krusei. When I was in Australia, I saw more of the Tropicalis. The Candida Tropicalistend to be more difficult to eradicate than the Albicans. Albicans is the one that wecommonly associate with gastrointestinal yeast infection issues.

It's just like with bacteria. We've got manydifferent types of bacteria. We've got gram negative. We've got gram positive. We've gotall sorts of beneficial, lots of beneficial. We've got many forms of parasites that wedeal with. So just like with Candida, there's no one particular strain, but the treatmentis basically the same. For example, to get rid of Tropicalis, therecord? is anywhere up to 20 times more difficult than to get rid of Candida Albicans.Many patients I see with chronic yeast infections have got multiple Candida strains, and thatbecomes a little bit more difficult to eradicate. It's like having different kinds of criminalsin an organization. Some of the criminals

are pretty dumb and stupid and they get caught.Other criminals are very smart and some of them are super intelligent. They can alwayshave different disguises on that if they're captured constantly. You've probably seensome movies like that, some pretty good films like that. Other criminals are plain dumb. They'll leavetheir wallets at the crime scene. They'll leave guns lying around and they'll have photosof themselves taken with the CT cameras. These are stupid criminals, and we've got some bacterialike that, and I find Albicans quite stupid, too. But the problem with the Albicans isit can mutate and change and evade capture,

particularly when the person hasn't reallybeen eating a good diet for a long time and been taking a lot of antibiotic drugs andcommercial antifungal drugs. Candida is quite clever in evading capture.I may have told you in a previous tutorial that Candida can release a particular poison calledgleer? toxin around itself that actually neutralizes the immune system around it, soit can be quite smart to do that. And when it dies, it releases all these glycol proteinsinto the circulation that attract the immune system to it rather than the Candida. It'sa little bit like if you see some of these jets that fly and they've got a heat sensingmissile going straight up their tail, they

can release these trailers or showers of sparksand the missile will hit those and blow up instead of the aircraft. Candida will do a similar thing. Bacteriadon't tend to think as clever as that. Candida is a little bit a cut above a bacteria whenit comes to intelligence, I think. And then we've got viruses, which are even higher abovethat which tend to be quite clever in how they can almost completely avoid being destroyed. I hope that answers your question with a bitof ramble on there for the difference between Candida and Candida Albicans. They're probablythe same. That's what the person's talking

Leave a Reply