Candida Albicans Hiv Infection

Yeast Infection Symptoms Vaginal Yeast Infection Cause and Symptoms

Vaginal Yeast Infection � Cause and Symptoms Vaginal yeast infections, also called quot;Candidavaginal infections,quot; typically are caused by the Candida albicans fungus. During a lifetime, 75 percent of all womenare likely to have at least one vaginal Candida infection, and up to 45 percent have two ormore. Women tend to be more likely to get to vaginalyeast infections if their bodies are under stress from poor diet, lack of sleep, illness,or when they are pregnant or taking antibiotics. Women with immunesuppressing diseases suchas diabetes and HIV infection also are at

increased risk. � Vaginal yeast infections are very common. They can bother you a lot, but they are simpleto treat. � The symptoms of a yeast infection, suchas itching, can also be caused by other problems. If you have never had a yeast infection before,or if you are pregnant, see your . If you have had a yeast infection before andrecognize the symptoms, you do not need to see a . How do I know if I have a yeast infection?

Yeast infections can be very uncomfortable,but are usually not serious. Symptoms include the following: � Itching and burning in the vagina andaround the vulva (the skin that surrounds your vagina) � A white vaginal discharge that may looklike cottage cheese � Pain during sexual intercourse � Swelling of the vulva Symptoms

� Common symptoms for all three infectionsinclude some kind of vaginal itching, redness, and a discharge. Below are all the yeast infection symptoms. � Itching and burning in the vagina. � Swelling, itching, and burning aroundthe skin surrounding the vagina and vulva, even at the lightest contact. � White thick vaginal discharge. � Pain and discomfort during sexual intercourse.

Burning sensation during and even after urination. � Causes, incidence, and risk factors: Candida albicans is a widespread organismwith worldwide distribution. It is normally found in small amounts in thevagina , the mouth, the digestive tract, and on the skin without causing disease or symptoms(approximately 25% of women without disease symptoms have this organism present). Yeast infections are common among dishwashersand people whose hands are often in water,

in children who suck their thumbs or fingers,and in people whose clothing retains body moisture. The diaper rash called candidal dermatitisis caused by yeast growth in the folds of a baby's skin. Other yeast or fungal infections are: � Balanitis � Intertrigo � Moniliasis

Fungal Infections and Antifungal Treatments Ringworm Candida Aspergillus Histoplasmosis

Distinguished future physicians welcome toStomp on Step 1 the only free tutorials series that helps you study more efficiently by focusingon the highest yield material. I'm Brian McDaniel and I will be your guide on thisjourney through Fungi. This is the 1st tutorial in my playlist covering all of Microbiologyfor the USMLE Step 1 Medical Board Exam. We are going to review Opportunistic Mycoses,Systemic Mycoses, Superficial Fungal infections and Antifungal medications. This info isn't very high yield for theexam, but I want to give us a little bit of a foundation to build on. Fungi are a groupof eukaryotic organisms that present as either

a unicellular organism (Yeast) or a multicellularorganism (Mold). They are nearly everywhere in nature, but only a small percentage cancause disease in humans. Most of the infections that occur are asymptomatic or so mild thatthat are not detected. Many of the pathogenic Fungi are dimorphic, meaning that they arepresent in the form of a mold in colder temperatures and present in the form of yeast at warmertemperatures (such as body temperature after infecting a human). A way to remember thisis the mnemonic “Mold in the Cold, Yeast in the Heat.� Fungi have a complex reproductivelife cycle that includes formation of Spores which can live in the environment in a vegetativestate. Humans usually contract fungal infections

by acquiring these spores from environmentalsources such as soil. Most fungal infections do not have a person to person spread. Mold form hyphae while Yeast form buddingyeast and psuedohyphae. Both hyphae and Psuedohyphae are branching filamentous vegetative structuresof fungi and each form spores. True hyphae have septae or cell walls between sectionswhile psuedohyphae are formed by budding without a true cell wallseptae between sections. The high yield fungal infections can primarilybe broken down into two groups, Systemic and Opportunistic. Fungi in the systemic categoryhave a higher virulence and can infect health

individuals. While these fungi can infectimmunocompetent individuals the infections are usually mild and localized to the respiratorysystem. In immunocompromised individuals the infections can more commonly spread from thelungs and disseminate to the rest of the body. Systemic fungi are found in specific geographicregions so when a question stem mentions a specific state that should be a buzzword toconsider these fungi. Opportunistic Fungi are lower virulence and have to “wait forthe right opportunity� to infect a host. Opportunistic infections usually only occurin immunocompromised patients such as those with AIDs, transplanted organs or cancer.For both systemic and Opportunistic Mycoses

infections the route of infections is mostoften inhalation of a spore from an environmental source. This first leads to a respiratoryinfection, and then given the right circumstances the infection may then spread to other partsof the body. Candida is the exception as it is normal skin flora. We all have Candidapresent on our skin and it only causes a problem when factors lead to an overgrowth of thefungi. The highest yield systemic mycoses are histoplasmosis,blastomycosis Coccidioidomycosis. The highest yield Opportunistic Mycoses are Candida, aspergillus,cryptococcus, mucormycosis Pneumocystis Jiirovecii.

For the most part, these different fungalinfections cannot be differentiated based only on the signs and symptoms. Most of thefungi present like pneumonia with vague flu like symptoms. Therefore, the different fungiare primarily differentiated based on histologic examination of the sputum, biopsy or swab.A stain such as PAS or silver stain is usually needed to visualize the fungi. You shouldbe able to identify the histology of each fungus via a pictures and a text descriptionof the findings as you can be presented with either in the question. Coccidioidomycosis is one of the SystemicMycoses. I give it a high yield rating of

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